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The first step in figuring out how much each caster must support is to divide the total load by the number of casters. For a 4-wheel material-handling cart that must support 1,000 lbs. for example, dividing 1,000 by 4 gives a minimum load capacity of 250 lbs. per caster.
The castor rotates perpendicular to the turning radius and provides a smooth turn. This can be seen on a shopping cart as the front wheels rotate at different velocities, with different turning radius depending on how tight a turn is made.
Place the ruler perpendicular to the length of the stem at the middle (not near the top of the ring). Most castors that have a grip ring stem have 7/16″ stem diameter. If the stem of your castor is 7/16″ diameter it will measure slightly less than the 1/2″ mark on the ruler.